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Turkey: Best season ever


Turkey, the world’s biggest hazelnut supplier, has had its best season ever as it managed to export 337,000 tons of hazelnuts between September 2019 and August, according to data from the Black Sea Hazelnut and Products Exporters’ Association (KIB).

The exports in the 50-week period of the 2019-2020 season, from September to the week ending Aug. 16, have brought in around $2.27 billion (TL 16.74 billion), Ihlas News Agency (IHA) cited the association as saying Tuesday.

Some 269,623 tons of hazelnut were exported in the 2018-2019 season and generated around $1.87 billion in revenue. The same figures stood at 283,718 tons and $1.76 billion in the 2017-2018 season.

The country’s hazelnut exports were mainly to the European Union, which has robust food industries to process the nuts.

Representatives have recently indicated the industry is seeking to break into new markets such as India, Russia, Mexico and Brazil.

Turkey is the world’s top hazelnut producer and exporter. It covers approximately 70% of the world’s production and 82% of exports, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Turkey is followed by Italy with nearly 20% in production and 15% in exports.

Compound of dried figs could increase risk of fatty liver disease


University of California – San Diego

Excessive consumption of fructose — a sweetener ubiquitous in the American diet — can result in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is comparably abundant in the United States. But contrary to previous understanding, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that fructose only adversely affects the liver after it reaches the intestines, where the sugar disrupts the epithelial barrier protecting internal organs from bacterial toxins in the gut.

Developing treatments that prevent intestinal barrier disruption, the authors conclude in a study published August 24, 2020 in Nature Metabolism, could protect the liver from NAFLD, a condition that affects one in three Americans.

“NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. It can progress to more serious conditions, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and death,” said senior author Michael Karin, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology and Pathology at UC San Diego School of Medicine. “These findings point to an approach that could prevent liver damage from occurring in the first place.”

Fructose consumption in the U.S. has skyrocketed since the 1970s and the introduction of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a cheaper sugar substitute that is broadly used in processed and packaged foods, from cereals and baked goods to soft drinks. Multiple studies in animals and humans have linked increased HFCS consumption with the nation’s obesity epidemic and numerous inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease and cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, however, currently regulates it similar to other sweeteners, such as sucrose or honey, and advises only moderation of intake.

The new study, however, defines a specific role and risk for HFCS in the development of fatty liver disease. “The ability of fructose, which is plentiful in dried figs and dates, to induce fatty liver was known to the ancient Egyptians, who fed ducks and geese dried fruit to make their version of foie gras,” said Karin.

“With the advent of modern biochemistry and metabolic analysis, it became obvious that fructose is two to three times more potent than glucose in increasing liver fat, a condition that triggers NAFLD. And the increased consumption of soft drinks containing HFCS corresponds with the explosive growth in NAFLD incidence.”

Fructose is broken down in the human digestive tract by an enzyme called fructokinase, which is produced both by the liver and the gut. Using mouse models, researchers found that excessive fructose metabolism in intestinal cells reduces production of proteins that maintain the gut barrier — a layer of tightly packed epithelial cells covered with mucus that prevent bacteria and microbial products, such as endotoxins, from leaking out of the intestines and into the blood.

“Thus, by deteriorating the barrier and increasing its permeability, excessive fructose consumption can result in a chronic inflammatory condition called endotoxemia, which has been documented in both experimental animals and pediatric NAFLD patients,” said the study’s first author Jelena Todoric, MD, PhD, a visiting scholar in Karin’s lab.

In their study, Karin, Todoric and colleagues from universities and institutions around the world, found that leaked endotoxins reaching the liver provoked increased production of inflammatory cytokines and stimulated the conversion of fructose and glucose into fatty acid deposits. 

“It is very clear that fructose does its dirty work in the intestine,” said Karin, “and if intestinal barrier deterioration is prevented, the fructose does little harm to the liver.”

The scientists noted that feeding mice with high amounts of fructose and fat results in particularly severe adverse health effects. “That’s a condition that mimics the 95th percentile of relative fructose intake by American adolescents, who get up to 21.5 percent of their daily calories from fructose, often in combination with calorie-dense foods like hamburgers and French fries,” Karin said. 

Interestingly, the research team found that when fructose intake was reduced below a certain threshold, no adverse effects were observed in mice, suggesting only excessive and long-term fructose consumption represents a health risk. Moderate fructose intake through normal consumption of fruits is well-tolerated. 

“Unfortunately, many processed foods contain HFCS and most people cannot estimate how much fructose they actually consume,” said Karin. “Although education and increased awareness are the best solutions to this problem, for those individuals who had progressed to the severe form of NAFLD known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, these findings offer some hope of a future therapy based on gut barrier restoration.”


Co-authors include: Giuseppe Di Caro, Shabnam Shalapour, Reginald McNulty, Koji Taniguchi, Courtney R. Green, Alison Vrbanac, Xiao Liu, Jeramie D. Watrous, Rafael Moranchel, Mahan Najhawan, Christian M. Metallo, Rob Knight, Mohit Jain,and Tatiana Kisseleva, all at UC San Diego; Saskia Reibe, Garvan Institute of Medical Research; Darren C. Henstridge and Peter J. Meikle, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute; Mark A. Febbraio, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Fatih Ceteci, Claire Conche and Florian R. Greten, German Cancer Research Center; Maria T. Diaz-Meco and Jorge Moscat, SBP Medical Discovery Institute; and Lester F. Lau, University of Illinois, Chicago School of Medicine.

By-product of cashew nut processing helps build India’s new batteries


Shiv Nadar University, research-focused university and an Institution of Eminence (IoE), today introduced Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology. The research aims to assist in the production of more cost-effective, safer, more energy-efficient, and environment-friendly Li-S batteries, as a viable alternative to Lithium-ion batteries. The Li-S battery technology employs principles of Green Chemistry, incorporating the usage of by-products from the petroleum industry (Sulfur), agro-waste elements and copolymers such as cardanol (a by-product of cashew nut processing) and eugenol (clove oil) as cathodic materials. This technology can aid industries including electric vehicles, tech gadgets, drones, and more.

The university introduced the tech after research of five years by Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry, Dr Bimlesh Lochab. According to the research, Li-S battery technology will be significantly cheaper and sustainable, while offering up to three times higher energy density with intrinsic flame-retardant properties.

Dr Lochab’s team has partnered with the Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay’s Professor in the Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Dr Sagar Mitra, to use this research for the development of a Li-S battery prototype.

The new battery technology synthesises a bio-based molecule, capable of commercial-scale production. The research includes a new type of cathode for Li-S batteries, which can help push the promising battery technology to higher performance levels.

Also read: 1000 km range with this electric car battery! Log9 Materials bets on aluminium fuel cells

The use of cardanol for Sulfur-based structures as an unconventional application to create cathode materials in this next generation Li-S battery technology has exhibited enhanced capacity retention (among the highest charge capacities reported) and longer battery life in a significantly smaller battery unit.

The Sulfur for the battery is sourced from industrial waste and cardanol is sourced from bio-renewable feed-stock that is easily available, non-toxic and environmentally friendly. In addition, the research innovatively used eugenol (derived from clove oil) copolymer, which is also environmentally sustainable, halogen-free, flame-retardant, and reduces the combustible propensities, making the battery remarkably safe to use.

Demand drives Ontario hazelnut industry


Mention hazelnuts and Ferrero Rocher and Nutella may come to mind. It’s no coincidence that those two food favourites were instrumental in the launch of the burgeoning hazelnut industry in Ontario.

Hazelnuts began to catch the attention of Ontario researchers, farmers and the government in 2006 when Ferrero opened a manufacturing plant in the city of Brantford.

Since that time, the number of trees planted in the province has increased, with researchers continuing to monitor which varieties thrive in our climate.

The numbers here – thousands of pounds per year – are still dwarfed by international producers, but there’s plenty of room to grow given demand. Turkey is the world’s leader in hazelnut production, growing more than 70 per cent of global supply, more than 420,000 tonnes. Italy is the number two supplier at 14.5 per cent, while the U.S. is at about five per cent.

Adam Dale, college professor emeritus in the University of Guelph’s department of plant agriculture, saw the opening of the Ferrero plant in Brantford as an opportunity, approaching the company about the development of an Ontario hazelnut industry. In 2008 he began research trials in conjunction with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Hazelnut Association.

More producers have climbed on board in Ontario, including John Maurer, who’s been on his property outside of Alma for the past 48 years where he’s grown such staples as corn and barley. Today, a former hayfield is home to his relatively recent hazelnut endeavour.

“I saw the write-up in one of the farm papers that said that if you can grow apples, you can grow hazelnuts. So, we went to a meeting and we kind of like what we heard,” he said of his decision to grow the tree nuts.

Maurer says the nut industry hadn’t been all that popular until a couple of years back when health food trends emerged. “Nuts are supposed to be healthy for you.”

Grimo Nut Nursery in Niagara-on-the-Lake offered to buy from Maurer everything he produces. However, he has since discovered a market of his own.

“I’ve been basically marketing to the Mennonites stands around here. And they’re selling them for me, so we have them in four different stands right now,” he explained. Wellesley Fall Harvest Farm recently opened their storefront onsite, providing another location for Maurer’s hazelnuts.

Maurer is a member of the Ontario Hazelnut Association and has witnessed the growth in the industry.

Maurer’s lot has at least 1,500 hazelnut trees now. He estimates that this year’s yield could be 15 times last year’s.

“We had about 100 pounds last year and we’re expecting from 1,000 pounds to maybe 1,500.” Although, it is suggested the nuts grow best in moist and fertile environments this year’s dry season seems to have caused a rapid growth for Maurer.

A tree produces for anywhere from 40 to 50 years, with those on his farm just three to six years of age. With orchards, Maurer says he keeps a tree as long as it produces high quality nuts. Harvest begins in mid-September, and it takes Maurer and his family until around Mid-October to yield the end product from the tress.

Maurer says he is having too much fun to retire and doesn’t see himself calling it a day for a time to come. “They’ll probably carry me off here,” he jokes.
Read in full: https://observerxtra.com/2020/08/13/demand-drives-ontario-hazelnut-industry/

Tanzania: TADB, Councils to Build Cashew Warehouse


THE Tanzania Agricultural Development Bank (TADB) in Nanyumbu District, and Masasi and Mtwara Cooperative Union (MAMCU) leaders have agreed on building a cashew nut warehouse to improve storage of the crop and reduce costs borne by cashew nut growers.

Speaking at the end of joint talks here in the presence of Nanyumbu District Commissioner, Mr Moses Machali, TADB Managing Director, Mr Japhet Justine said storage of cashew nut in the district had been a serious challenge that needed an urgent solution. Lack of a godown, he explained, increased production costs and post-harvest loses.

“TADB aims to encourage big reforms in the agriculture sector in conformity with the plans of the fifth phase government and in implementing the national agenda of building an industrial economy.

Raw materials are an important aspect, and crops are important raw materials for our industries. We shall do whatever possible to promote the agriculture sector and increase the national gross product (GDP),” he said.

He explained that the bank was financing the project through the smallholder credit guarantee scheme (SCGS) and in cooperation with the MAMCU.

The government has declared cashew nut as a strategic cash crop with two goals: to increase disposable income of growers and earn foreign currency.

Production of the crop has steadily increased in recent years. Cashew nut production has risen from 155,416 tonnes during the 2015/16 growing season to 350,000 tonnes during the 2018/2019.

Mr Machali thanked TADB for supporting the project, adding that the district was producing an average of 19,000 tonnes annually.


The American pecan industry has been experiencing tremendous growth over the last decade as pecan growers have formed and funded a marketing campaign that has been working around the globe to increase awareness of the health benefits and versatility of American pecan nuts. 

The industry recently began to collect a limited amount of audited data contributed by growers and shellers to paint a better picture of industry supply and demand. The American Pecan Council has released monthly pecan position reports for nearly two years now allowing the industry to compare shipments, exports, inventory and supply capacities on a monthly basis. 

Many pecan growers/suppliers have had major concerns over the slowing global economy, especially on the heels of a trade war, that could potentially hurt demand for pecans. However, growers fears have not come to fruition, in fact the opposite has been playing out as demand for pecans has continued to soar right through the trade war, and now continuing through the global pandemic which ultimately shutdown the global economy for several months, and is now taking a toll on various vulnerable industries and companies. 

While growth has been good for the pecan industry, most of that growth has come from right here in the USA domestic market. The largely untapped market here in the US is seeing enormous growth. The export market, however, is another story. 

So far this year pecan exports have fallen off by 10.6% year to date when compared to last year for the same time period (Sept-May). Total exports this time last year amounted to just over 88 million pounds while this year total exports sit at just over 79 million pounds. 

Read more in the Pecan Report: https://pecanreport.com/news/pecan-exports-to-europe-down-20-for-the-season/

Spain is worried about almond price trends


Concern reigns within the Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives of Catalonia (FCAC) for falling prices in the almond market, after the release of the estimated harvest of this dried fruit in California and the good forecasts of the harvest in Catalonia, which is estimated to grow by around 12%. In the market of Reus, the main in the State in terms of this dried fruit, the price of almonds fell from 5.30 euros per kilo of grain last January, to 3.40 euros per kilo the second week of June. The collapse will have a serious impact on dryland cultivation, which occupies most of the surface of Catalonia.

To deal with this situation and ensure the viability of rainfed farms, the FCAC has called on the Ministry of Agriculture to recover the maintenance of the current associated aid, the establishment of eco-schemes that favor certain production systems and the implementation underway a conversion plan for traditional rainfed plantations, as the only avenues to ensure crop viability.

Roger Palau, responsible for nuts of the FCAC and also of the group of cooperatives of nuts of the Spanish State, stands out that “the crop of the almond occupies a productive surface of more than 450.000 hectares in the State, of the of which 86% are dryland, with significantly lower yields than irrigated. This makes it difficult for them to survive in a context of maximum and growing competitiveness, which leads to low income and low profitability. We believe that the dry almond tree must be protected both for the environmental role of this crop and for the positive impact on the economic and social aspects of the rural development of the producing regions. “

At the same time, a large producer such as the United States expects a spectacular harvest for this year. Almond Board forecasts that imports of American almonds into the European Union will increase by 17.6% compared to 2019 due to record production in California, which is projected at 1,361,000 tons of almonds.

The situation of the sector is aggravated by the closure suffered by the Horeca channel as a result of the covid-19 and the practical disappearance of exports, facts to which is added the significant drop in prices of almonds in recent months in the different boxes of the State. “But none of this justifies such a significant drop in prices, not even thinking that there may be some stock from last year or that this year we will have a good harvest,” says Palau.

According to FCAC forecasts, the almond harvest will grow by 12% in Catalonia, due to the entry into production of new almond plantations under irrigation, “which may endanger dryland cultivation”. This increase would place global production at 6,737 tons of grain, compared to 6,025 tons of grain in the previous season.
There are 29,377 productive hectares of almonds in Catalonia, 78.1% of which are dry land. For the first year, however, production from irrigation is the majority and accounts for 58% of the total. “The consolidation of irrigation can endanger the continuity of dry land, guarantors of territorial balance in areas where no other crop is viable. Besides, to this adds that the current situation of the market is not at all favorable for this crop ”, explains Palau.

We are experiencing a strong agronomic revolution in the world of almonds, with the introduction of new varieties and more productive cultivation systems, but the almond sector continues to suffer: “We are crackers producing, but a disaster selling.”

Largest dried grape vineyard in Australia under new management


Golden Dried Fruits (GDF) has completed the signing of a 25 year lease with Arrow Funds Management for their 750 hectare Advinco Farm in Nangiloc Victoria. The lease commences on July 1 and will make GDF the largest grower of dried grapes in Australia. 

GDF is owned by the 100% Australian family owned food business, Scalzo Food Industries, which also owns dried grape processor Australian Premium Dried Fruits. The group is already the largest fully integrated dried fruit business in Australia, with other owned or contracted vineyards making up the existing supply. The addition of the Advinco farm secures the four largest dried fruit properties in the country to the group, which will see production more than double in the next three years. 

The new farm addition is opposite GDF, so existing experienced GDF Vineyard Manager Shannon Sharp, will take on total responsibility for both farms with a combined 950 hectares now under the GDF banner. 

Scalzo Foods CEO & Managing Director Michael Scalzo said “securing the lease is a hugely exciting moment for our dried fruit business. Managing the property always made sense geographically, being next door to GDF. There are some significant challenges in the short term to bring the property back from its very poor condition, but we are committed to making it the show piece it once was under its original owners. The farm is producing extremely low volumes compared to a typical dried grape vineyard, which is not sustainable. We hope that our experience and commitment, plus some help from Mother Nature will see the property become a valuable contributor to the industry once again in coming years.” 

APDF also has supply contracts in place with over 60 independent growers farming traditional dried fruit properties of 10-30 hectares, contributing 3000-4000 tonnes to their annual intake. 

APDF CEO Craig Greenwood said “the company now has a great mix of corporate and family owned and run farms in its supply base. It is very important we do not underestimate the need for both to maintain relevance in the global dried grape industry. Corporate farms bring much needed scale, while the family run farms maintain the great tradition the industry has, along with quality and innovation that you sometimes don’t achieve at the corporate farm level. We see a great need for both forms of supply, which are both sustainable and profitable when managed well. 2 | P a g e 

We are seeing great results from growers who have adopted mechanised practices and new varieties”. 

“Australian dried grapes enjoy a reputation globally as a premium product, although global supply and price dynamics remain ever present. It’s important that our farming and processing goals include a relentless drive toward greater efficiencies and lower costs to ensure we can remain competitive. This model offers a sustainable and exciting future for our business and the dried grape industry.” 

Since acquiring APDF in April 2016, Scalzo Food Industries has invested significantly at both the farming and processing level, creating a fully integrated dried grape business that now competes on a global scale. 

Hedging almond price risk now possible in India


By Sameer Patil

Fancy Diwali gift boxes, healthy snack and vegan milk all have one thing common – the almond! It is scientifically proven that almond has significant health benefits for the heart, weight management and diabetes management. Unknown to most people in the country, India is one of the biggest consumers and importers of almonds in the world.

Production and Consumption

Last year, India imported 1,31,000 tonnes of almonds valued at $666 million and constituted the largest market comprising 48 per cent of global imports. Traditionally in India, demand for almonds peaks during the festive season from September to January. The growing perception among Indian consumers about nutritional and health benefits associated with almonds is also driving demand beyond just the festive season.

Data shows Indian almond imports grew at an average annual rate of 9.8 per cent between 2007 and 2018. This growth corelates with the expansion of the Indian economy. As income levels grow coupled with the rising health consciousness, demand for almonds is only expected to grow. On the supply side, the US is the dominant producer followed by Spain and Australia. California is the only state in the US, which grows almond! So, all of the US’ almonds are California almonds.

California almonds have more than 75 per cent market share, while 18 per cent comes from Australia. California’s almond exports to India is valued at about $650 million, according to the US Agriculture Department and California Department of Food and

Agriculture. India’s domestic production is limited to the hill states of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

Product crop cycle

Almonds are grown in a mild temperate kind of weather, cool rainy winters and dry summers, accompanied by rich soil, like the California valley. Almond plants are generally planted in February-March and harvesting begins by July, when the fruit begins to split open. Between mid to late August, the splits widen, exposing the shell and this allows the nuts to dry. When properly stored, unshelled almonds generally stay at best quality for two to four weeks at room temperature and for about 12 months in controlled conditions (freezer).

Almond variety

Almonds develop in a shell that is surrounded by a hull (analogous to the fleshy part of a peach). Over the summer, as the nuts mature, the hull dries and splits open, revealing the shell that encases the nut. The nuts dry naturally in this shell before they are harvested – hence, the two types, in-shell and shelled (one for consumption).

India is the world’s biggest in-shell almond importer, but shelled almond imports are a rarity. The reason is straight forward – cost effectiveness. Labour cost and employment generation have made it logical to import in-shell almonds and then shell them in India.

Hedging almond price risk
Almond price has seen remarkable growth of 4.4 per cent in the 11-year period from 2007 to 2018. The annualised volatility of almond spot prices is 13.23 per cent over the past three years.

In June 2019, India imposed tariffs on almonds and 27 other American products in retaliation of the US ending India’s preferential trade status. Reports said these tariffs added about 12 cents per pound to shelled almonds, a 20 per cent increase, and about 4 cents for those still in their shells, a rise of 17 per cent. Similarly, the rupee’s annualised volatility is approximately 8.3 per cent when measured in terms of monthly percentage changes over last 25 years.

Rupee volatility also increases due to external factors such as the 2012-13 Taper Tantrum episode as well as the current coronavirus situation. Given the volatility in both almond prices and the rupee, hedging price risk of almonds is vital for everyone associated in the value chain.

BSE almond contracts

Given the price risk and volatility, BSE is introducing monthly futures contracts in almonds from June 22, the first of its kind not only in India but globally. The contract trading unit is 1,000 kg. The maximum order size is 20,000 kg, delivery units are 1000 kg deliverable at Navi Mumbai. The almond contracts will take the reference rate of Navi Mumbai APMC. Quality specifications should meet FSSAI standards with certified crackout to be of 70 per cent to be based on the net edible yield, with allowable crackout of 68 per cent. The calculation of crackout will be as per net edible yield.

These standard contracts will be extremely convenient for producers and large importers to hedge price risks. Although the size of the almond market is small compared with other commodities, BSE has received a lot of queries from traders, importers and consumers from not only in India, but across the globe, given that it the first-of-its-kind contract anywhere in the world. BSE is confident that the wide dissemination of almond prices on its platform will be used as reference prices for physical market transactions.

BSE is also expanding ties with various physical market participants for strengthening of warehouses and other support infrastructure, essential for grading, sorting and quality certification. The exchange is reaching out to participants and spreading awareness of the benefits of these products and looks forward to a wide participation in the future.

Going forward

BSE is keen on making the commodity market more vibrant and inclusive, benefitting the entire spectrum of market participants, from producers to traders and end-consumers. Apart from providing its platform for stakeholders of commodities markets to hedge against price risk, the exchange has provided participants with cost-effective and best-in-class technology solutions. BSE plans to systematically develop the commodity market via launch of more unique and innovative products, awareness and research with a view to provide a wider product range to the market participants. – Economic Times

(Sameer Patil is Chief Business Officer at BSE. Views are his own)

7 million hazelnut trees in Bhutan are waiting to be harvested


Dago Dorji chose to become a lorry driver. Due to shortage of farmhands, he had left his arable farming land in Paro fallow for a long time. And then Covid-19 came. Driving is not a lucrative profession anymore and so he has return to his farm. He has ventured into growing hazelnut.

Hazelnut is not very popular among the farmers in Paro but then Dago has planted hazelnut saplings in his five-acre land. In Punakha too, he has planted hazelnut saplings, in about the same acreage. “It’s a long-term investment,” he said. “The venture can enhance the country’s export market,” he said. Lhamo, in Lungnyi, was among the first to venture into growing hazelnut in Paro. Hard work and long wait time are why most farmers do not prefer growing hazelnut. In the eastern parts of the country, however, hazelnut production is good business. In the west, the main problem is the farmhand shortage.

Dago said that the farmhand shortage was not a problem now because many people, especially those who had been employed in the tourism sector, were getting into agriculture. But then, even in Paro, water—the lack of it—is a serious problem for the farmers. Luckily, for Dago, the weather these past few weeks have been kind. There has been enough rain and he owns a water tanker.

Officials involved in the mountain hazelnut project say that water scarcity was the main challenge facing the farmers. Limited landholding is another problem. Cheday from Haa also took up hazelnut plantation in 2016 hoping that by this time of the year she could make money from the fruits. “It was a wrong investment and a waste of time,” she said. Trees have matured in some gewogs in Haa and Paro , but fruiting has not happened.

MH’s communication officer with the corporate department, Lhaki Woezer, said that following extensive consultation with stakeholders, MH had set a guaranteed floor price around Nu 34 per kg of quality hazelnuts. She said that the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests conducted a detailed assessment to determine the floor price. “MH’s guaranteed market and price enable growers to make risk free and sustainable plans for their future.” More than 11,000 households are engaged in the hazelnut venture today. The project distributed 7 million trees. Close to 1,400 farmers in Paro and Haa have registered to take up hazelnut plantation.